Before we start talking about writing an annotated bibliography in APA format, you should know what an annotated bibliography is. An annotated bibliography is a kind of academic writing that includes a list of sources on a particular topic with short descriptions. When you get such an assignment, you should understand that it will take lots of time, as you will need not only to look through particular sources and decide its relevance to your topic or research, but also make conclusions about the text.

Each point in an annotated bibliography contains two components:

- The citation (in our case – using APA style).
- The annotation — a description and characterization of sources. Annotations may be descriptive (in this case you write your own summary about the writer’s work) or evaluative. An annotation should differ from the abstract and contain your own thoughts and conclusions.

Formatting:

- The annotation is placed on the next line from citation.
- Don’t use an extra space between lines, just use the double spacing.
- If you write an annotated bibliography that consists of several parts, you can a give title for each part.

If you need to write an annotated bibliography in APA format, just take a look at our sample! It will give you a clearer image of what you should write and how.

**Annotated Bibliography Template – APA 6th Edition**

*Schneier, B. (1996). Applied cryptography: Protocols, algorithms, and source code in C. New York: Wiley.*

The book is intended for programmers and engineers. It contains a detailed guide to cryptographic protocols (Part 1), cryptographic techniques (Part 2), and cryptographic algorithms (Part 3). Next, Part 4 deals with the practical implementation of cryptographic protocols and algorithms, as well as political issues. Furthermore, as stated in the title, the source shows the practice of some cryptographic algorithms (Part 5). The presentation is on an informal level. It represents the value of a large bibliography containing 1653 names.

*Tilborg, H. C. (1999). Fundamentals of cryptology: A professional reference and interactive tutorial. Hingham: Kluwer Academic.*

As with Schneider’s book Applied Cryptography, this book is written for programmers and engineers, but it is written as a textbook, and therefore contains a large number of examples and exercises. The main themes of the book are as follows: the classic cryptosystem, sequences generated by shift registers, block ciphers, the Shannon theory, the technique of data compression, cryptography public key schemes based on various theoretical and numerical and theoretical-code tasks, number-theoretic algorithms, hash, message authentication, zero knowledge protocols, and secret sharing schemes. The annex contains the basic information of number theory and algebra, as well as a series of short biographies of famous mathematicians.

The special feature of the book is the systematic use of pseudo-code examples of Mathematica. The book is accompanied by a CD-ROM with its electronic version. The latter can be used as an interactive tutorial, allowing to perform in Mathematica examples of books with different parameters.

*Koblitz, N. (1994). A course in number theory and cryptography. New York: Springer- Verlag.*

The book is intended for the initial acquaintance with cryptosystems based on number-theoretic problems, and with number-theoretic algorithms. It sets out the basis of the elementary theory of numbers (for junior course students). The book contains chapters on the following: some questions of elementary number theory; finite field and quadratic residues; cryptography; the public key; simplicity and factorization; and elliptic curves.

*Goldreich, O. (2001). Foundations of cryptography: Basic tools. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.*

A detailed monograph on mathematical cryptography. Main topics: computational complexity, pseudorandom generators, zero-knowledge proof, encryption, digital signatures, message authentication, and the general theory of cryptographic protocols. Particular attention is given to different varieties of zero-knowledge proof. In many ways, this book is number one in world literature on mathematical cryptography. It is this book that can be recommended to math-readers for the systematic study of mathematical cryptography.

*Luby, M. G. (1996). Pseudorandomness and cryptographic applications. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.*

The book is written on the basis of course lectures for graduate students, delivered by the author at the University of California (Berkeley) in the fall semester of 1990. In the book were considered the following topics: one-way functions, pseudorandom generators, encryption, statistical and computational indistinguishability, entropy, generators of pseudorandom functions and permutation functions secret, universal family of one-way hash functions, digital signatures, interactive proofs (including zero-knowledge), and binding to bat. The volume of this book is less than Goldreich’s book and differs from the latter theme. The presentation is built around the randomness (as reflected in the title of the book), and interactive proofs devoted only in one lecture. Many results are set out with “first hand”: the author participated in the proof. As we know, Luby’s book is the one where you can find the pseudo-random generator based on the design of an arbitrary one-way function (in a heterogeneous computing model) with full justification.

*Kilian, J. (2005). Theory of cryptography: Second theory of cryptography conference, TCC 2005, Cambridge, MA, USA, February 10-12, 2005: Proceedings. Berlin: Springer.*

Main topics: one-way function with a secret function, pseudorandom generators, block ciphers, pseudorandom functions, encryption (both secret and public key), hash message authentication, digital signatures, key distribution, and cryptographic protocols. It focuses on the mathematical problems arising in the study of the practical cryptographic constructions. This is the main difference of this material from Goldreich’s and Luby’s books. The annexes summarized the basic definitions and facts of computational complexity theory and the theory of numbers (including the number-theoretic algorithms). This makes the material more accessible to students.

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