Bibliographies are often used for writing coursework, research papers, theses, scientific or historical publications, and many other types of academic work. The list usually includes all types of documents: books, brochures, newspapers, magazines, audio and video recordings, archival materials, Internet sources and e-books.
An annotated bibliography is a brief description of the document – its part or the totality of the document, in terms of content, purpose, shape and other features. An annotated bibliography has an explanatory or advisory nature.
- An annotated bibliography is usually written according to three styles: APA, MLA, or Chicago Manual Style. Before starting your writing, consult your tutor.
- An annotated bibliography in APA style includes a summary of the mentioned document with the main points covered in text. Also, students should make a text analysis on strengths and weaknesses, methods used in project, etc. This type of annotation usually doesn’t reflect the importance of described documents in personal future research.
- An annotated bibliography in MLA style has the same points as APA style, but differs at the last point – the student should reflect how this document will serve for his or her own project (important or useless).
- A Chicago Manual Style annotated bibliography should contain only basic information about the document – the main essentials.
During the main stages of the annotation the process can be divided into several stages: the analysis of the document, studying additional sources, the selection of information and describing the essence of the work, applying a certain style and editing annotations.
Actions for writing annotations can be as follows:
- Divide the text into meaningful parts.
- Highlight each basic idea of the text, and design them in several statements (your own or citations from text).
- Identify the main idea in your own words.
- List the main ideas – the issues raised by the author, and his or her conclusions and proposals.
- Determine the significance of the work.
Conciseness is a distinctive feature of literary annotations. The challenge is to integrate disparate information, and highlight the most significant and main things.
You can read an annotated bibliography sample in APA style below:
1. Leibner, J., Mader, G., & Weiss, A. (2009). The Power of Strategic Commitment:
Achieving Extraordinary Results Through Total Alignment and Engagement. New
York: American Management Association.
This text focuses on the effect of the commitment control of the upper level of the organization and the effectiveness of strategic management. In the literature, there is no common view on the effectiveness of the organization. There is a set of concepts and models that is selected for the following: the ability of members to overcome conflicts; orientation on the customer; flexibility and adaptability; information management and communications; group morality; formulating objectives and planning; performance; quality; urgency; and the value of labor. The authors present a detailed description of contribution of each concept in efficiency. The description of the strategic management process model examines the link between strategic management, efficient organization and the role of top-level managers. The study was conducted on the basis of a survey from members of the group consisting of 25 heads or deputy units that were supposed to express their attitude and rank 10 concepts of efficiency and characterize their behavior as leaders.
2. Christy, R. D., A., D. S., Mhlanga, N., Mabaya, E., & Tihanyi, K. (2015). Innovative
Institutions, Public Policies and Private Strategies for Agro-Enterprise Development.
Rome, Italy: Food And Agricultural Organization of the United Nations and Market
Matters Inc with World Scientific Publishing.
The authors investigate the role of industrial structure in the identification of the company’s profit. A brief review of the literature, which shows that the followers of Porter’s model on its base “5 Forces” attach great importance to the influence of industry structure on the profitability of firms. In contrast, the ‘Austrian school’ and the ‘Chicago school’ believe that the structure of the industry has very little impact on the company. In their opinion, the company’s success depends on the ability to generate innovation and protect new products from imitations and the ability to overcome the inertia of the company. This approach, called neo-Austrian perspective, which is market-oriented, operates in conditions of instability in the world. Authors consider the theory of the competition and the link between industry structure and profitability of firms. The practice proves that the profitability of companies depends not on the level of concentration of the industry, but on the various characteristics of the companies. Results of the study may be used in the strategic management among companies.
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